The issue of macroeconomic closure revisited and extended

Zalai, Ernő and Révész, Tamás (2016) The issue of macroeconomic closure revisited and extended. Working Paper. Centre for Public Administration Studies Corvinus University of Budapest.

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A shorter version of this paper was published under the same title in Acta Oeconomica, 2016, vol. 66, issue 1, pages 1-31. DOI: 10.1556/032.2016.66.1.1


Léon Walras (1874) already had realized that his neo-classical general equilibrium model could not accommodate autonomous investment. Sen analysed the same issue in a simple, one-sector macroeconomic model of a closed economy. He showed that fixing investment in the model, built strictly on neo-classical assumptions, would make the system overdetermined, thus, one should loosen some neo-classical condition of competitive equilibrium. He analysed three not neo-classical “closure options”, which could make the model well determined in the case of fixed investment. Others later extended his list and it showed that the closure dilemma arises in the more complex computable general equilibrium (CGE) models as well, as does the choice of adjustment mechanism assumed to bring about equilibrium at the macro level. By means of numerical models, it was also illustrated that the adopted closure rule can significantly affect the results of policy simulations based on a CGE model. Despite these warnings, the issue of macro closure is often neglected in policy simulations. It is, therefore, worth revisiting the issue and demonstrating by further examples its importance, as well as pointing out that the closure problem in the CGE models extends well beyond the problem of how to incorporate autonomous investment into a CGE model. Several closure rules are discussed in this paper and their diverse outcomes are illustrated by numerical models calibrated on statistical data. First, the analyses is done in a one-sector model, similar to Sen’s, but extended into a model of an open economy. Next, the same analyses are repeated using a fully-fledged multisectoral CGE model, calibrated on the same statistical data. Comparing the results obtained by the two models it is shown that although, using the same closure option, they generate quite similar results in terms of the direction and – to a somewhat lesser extent – of the magnitude of change in the main macro variables, the predictions of the multi-sectoral CGE model are clearly more realistic and balanced.

Item Type:Monograph (Working Paper)
Uncontrolled Keywords:computable general equilibrium model, closure, neo-classical, neo-Keynesian and structuralist theory of distribution, open economy
JEL classification:C54 - Quantitative Policy Modeling
C68 - Computable General Equilibrium Models
O50 - Economywide Country Studies: General
Projects:ÁROP 1.1.10-2011-2011-0001, 151629-2010 A08
ID Code:2462
Deposited By: Ádám Hoffmann
Deposited On:19 Sep 2016 12:16
Last Modified:19 Sep 2016 12:24

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